Wednesday, October 23, 2013

National Enquirer on Herminio Diaz at DP

National Enquirer - Lee Harvey Oswald did NOT act alone

LEE HARVEY OSWALD did NOT act alone – and The ENQUIRER can finally name the second gunman who fired the fatal shot at President JOHN F. KENNEDY from the grassy knoll in Dallas 50 years ago!
In a blockbuster exclusive, The ENQUIRER has learned that a Cuban exile with ties to both the Mafia and the CIA confessed to being involved in a conspiracy to kill America’s beloved 35th president.

The startling new evidence was uncovered by re­spected author Anthony Summers, who revealed the assassin’s identity in an update to his classic 1998 book on Kennedy’s slaying, “Not In Your Lifetime.”
According to Summers, the second rifleman was Herminio Diaz, a hired killer who worked for notorious Mafia boss Santo Trafficante Jr. in Cuba. Diaz executed a Cuban police chief in the late 1940s and likely committed 20 murders in his lifetime.

“Lee Harvey Oswald did not act alone,” Summers told The ENQUIRER.
“There was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy, and the same people who hired Lee Harvey Oswald – whether it was the CIA, the Mafia or Cubans opposed to Fidel Castro – also hired Herminio Diaz.”

Diaz arrived in the U.S. in mid-1963, according to CIA documents, just months be­fore Kennedy was struck down in Dealey Plaza on Nov. 22 of that year.
“Diaz was a professional hit man with a record of political assassina­tions,” Summers said.

“He’d also worked for Mafia chief Trafficante as security director of the Hotel Habana Riviera casino in Cuba.
“He was in the country at the right time and was involved in the anti-Castro movement. Many people in that movement thought President Kennedy had betrayed them during the CIA-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, and had a motive to kill him.

“Frankly, it all adds up.”
According to Summers, Diaz revealed his role in the Kennedy assassination to a friend named Tony Cuesta. The two men were headed to Cuba by boat on an anti-Castro raid in 1966 when Diaz spilled the details on the murder plot.

“Diaz and Cuesta talked on the boat while waiting to land in Cuba,” Summers said.
“During their conversations, Diaz admitted to Cuesta that he’d taken part in Kennedy’s death.”

Diaz was killed in the raid. Afterward, a photo published in a Cuban Communist Party newspaper showed that he was carrying a valid Florida driver’s license and a Social Security card when he died, evidence that he had indeed been in the U.S.
His buddy Cuesta was badly injured in the raid, captured and jailed at Cuba’s infamous La Cabana Prison. While being treated at the jail infirmary, Cuesta confided Diaz’s assassination story to another anti-Castro inmate, Cuban Rein­aldo Martinez. After his release from prison, Martinez fled to Miami, and in 2007 he contacted G. Robert Blakey, who’d served as chief counsel of the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations.

“Martinez thought he was about to die and wanted to set the record straight,” Blakey told The ENQUIRER.
“After speaking with him, I believe he was telling the truth. It wasn’t just Lee Harvey Oswald who killed Kennedy. It was a conspiracy, and Herminio Diaz was the second shooter.”

Summers also interviewed Martinez for two days in Miami.
 “Martinez had nothing to gain by telling his story, except for setting the record straight,” Summers, who videotaped the interview, told The ENQUIRER.

“He told me he was close to death and was telling the story because, ‘It is the truth – my truth.’”
Kennedy’s brutal slaughter stunned America and prompted his successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson, to order a thorough investigation of the tragedy. According to the official Warren Commission report on the assassination, Oswald acted alone in shooting Kennedy.

BUT in the famed Zapruder film that shows the presidential motorcade moving through Dealey Plaza, Kennedy is first hit from behind, where Oswald was located in the Texas School Book Depository.
After that, it appears that Kennedy was hit from the front at an angle which would indicate a shooter located on the “grassy knoll.”

One expert who’s convinced there was a second shooter is world famous medical examiner Cyril H. Wecht, who’s spent decades studying the assassination.
“Based on the available medical, physical and photographic evidence, all of which I’ve exam­ined multiple times, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was carried out by two gunmen – not just Lee Harvey Oswald,” Wecht told The ENQUIRER. According to his analysis, Wecht says two gunmen fired four shots, and one assassin was situated at the front of the motorcade.

“Based on the initial backward trajectory of the president’s head after being impacted by the gunshot blasts, I believe a shooter operated from the right front of the vehicle behind the picket fence on the grassy knoll,” he said.
“Eyewitness accounts corroborate this.”

While the Warren Report discounted that scenario, multiple eyewitnesses told the same story to the congressional committee between 1977 and 1979, according to Blakey.
“At our hearings, there was lots of testimony that a shot was fired from the grassy knoll,” Blakey, also author of the anti-mob RICO act and professor emeritus of law at Notre Dame, told The ENQUIRER.

“I believe there were four shots. The first, second and fourth shots came from the Texas School Book Depository. The third shot came from the grassy knoll.
“The committee had everything but the names of the people involved in the conspiracy. Marti­nez’s story has filled in the last pieces of the puzzle. There were two shooters.”

According to both Summers and Blakey, Marti­nez approached the FBI to tell his story but was told that the assassination investigation was closed.
And Blakey called Summers’ discovery of Diaz’s role in the assassination a “breakthrough of historical importance.”

“Summers’ book deserves to be read and taken seriously by all those who care about truth or justice,” he said.
Summers added: “I completely believe the stories told by Reinaldo Martinez and Tony Cuesta about Herminio Diaz’s role in the assassination of President Kennedy.

“Fifty years after the fact, their information has blown the investigation into the Kennedy assassi­nation wide open!” 

NOTE: One of the UK papers picked up on this story and rewrite it a little different. 

Tuesday, October 22, 2013

A Great Conference on the JFK Assassination

A Great Conference on the JFK Assassination

by Jacob G. Hornberger October 21, 2013

I just returned from one of the finest conferences I’ve ever attended. It was a 3-day conference on the John Kennedy assassination sponsored by the Cyril H. Wecht Institute of Forensic Science and Law at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh. Not only were the speakers fantastic, the conference itself was first-class. 400 people attended. Wecht is a forensic pathologist best known for his criticisms of the findings of the Warren Commission and is deeply admired and respected within the assassination research community.
I highly recommend purchasing the videos of the talks at the conference, which probably will be ready in about 3-4 weeks. I am confident that they will be reasonably priced.

Here are just a few of the many highlights of the conference.
Oliver Stone, who directed the movie JFK, delivered two presentations. One presentation was part of a panel that examined why the mainstream media continues to hew to the Warren Report, despite its manifest lack of credibility. The other was a speech on Stone’s documentary “The Untold History of the United States,” with an emphasis on the Cold War period. Both presentations were fantastic. Stone is an awesome speaker, delivering his remarks with passion, commitment, knowledge, and, well, in a very friendly, down-to-earth manner. It was clear that Stone has steeped himself in history. It was also clear that the overall perspectives on the Kennedy assassination expressed in JFK are perspectives that Stone strongly holds today. I’d recommend purchasing the DVDs of the conference just for Stone’s presentations alone.

But the other talks were just as good. When Dr. Robert McClelland began his talk via live-stream on two big screens in the room, you could hear a pin drop. He told the audience that he was a 34-year-old physician at Parkland when Kennedy was brought in and that he was standing at the head of Kennedy’s gurney for 18 minutes. He carefully described the large hole in the back of Kennedy’s head, depicting an exit wound, from which he saw cerebellum brain tissue coming out. (The cerebellum is located in the lower back of the brain.) He stated that during the 1980s, he came to Washington and viewed the autopsy photographs, which of course show the back of Kennedy’s head to be intact. McClelland said he made it clear at that time that the autopsy photographs did not correctly depict the back of Kennedy’s head, a position that he continues to hold today. As I detailed in my multi-part article “The Kennedy Autopsy,” McClelland wasn’t the only one: There were lots of other credible people who saw the big exit wound in the back of Kennedy’s head, which, of course, would indicate that the shot had been fired from Kennedy’s front.
David Talbot, founder of, and author of the fantastic book on the assassination, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years, delivered one of the most interesting and gripping talks of the entire conference. It focused on CIA Director Allen Dulles, who Talbot called the chairman of the board of the Kennedy assassination. Talbot received a spontaneous standing ovation from the entire audience immediately upon the conclusion of his talk.

Talbot was followed by James diEugenio, the head of a group entitled Citizens for Truth About the Kennedy Assassination (CTKA) and the author of a new book entitled Reclaiming Parkland, which is a detailed critical analysis of Vincent Bugliosi’s book of the JFK assassination, Reclaiming History. DiEugenio’s talk showed how Kennedy’s philosophy favoring Third World independence and nationalism, which he was expressing when he was in the U.S. Senate, was a threat to the national-security establishment, which believed that any Third World nation that didn’t align with the United States in the Cold War had to be considered an enemy of the United States.
I was particularly interested in attorney Dan Hardway’s talk. He temporarily dropped out of law school to work for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, which investigated the Kennedy assassination in the late 1970s. He and another law student were assigned to look into CIA records. The CIA insisted on their doing all their work at CIA headquarters. The CIA permitted them to request and look at files and to take notes, but prohibited them from removing anything, including their notes. For a while, the CIA was responding favorably to their requests, obviously humoring these two law students. But at some point, it was clear that the two law students knew what they were doing and where they were going. At that point, the CIA changed the system and summoned a retired CIA official named George Joannides out of retirement and put him in control of the matter. Hardway said that at that point, everything changed and they met with obstruction from that point on.

Another interesting speaker was Jefferson Morley, a former investigative reporter for the Washington Post and author of Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA. Morley has waged a 10-year or so battle against the CIA for the files and records relating to Joannides, which the CIA steadfastly continues to keep secret to this very day. In fact, Morley’s talk showed how the government, especially the CIA, continues to refuse to disclose some 1,100 records, consisting of an estimated 30,000-60,000 pages. What’s the justification? Oh, national security, of course.
Many years later, it would be learned that when he was an active CIA agent in the early 1960s, Joannides had played an intriguing role as the CIA’s contact for an anti-Castro group in New Orleans called the DRE, which had interesting contacts with Lee Harvey Oswald. Neither Joannides nor the CIA ever disclosed that relationship to the Warren Commission or to the House Select Committee, much to the later chagrin of Robert Blakey, the House Committee’s staff director, and federal Judge John Tunheim, who chaired the ARRB. See my article “The New York Times Shines a Light into the JFK-CIA-Joannides Scandal.”

By the way, Morley runs a great website on the JFK assassination entitled
One of the interesting aspects to this conference is that it showed that as the years have passed and more and more records declassified, especially after the Assassination Records Review Board in the 1990s, assassination researchers have coalesced in the same direction—that Kennedy was assassinated by the national-security state as a result of the fundamentally different direction that Kennedy was taking America, one that involved an end to the Cold War.

There were many more speakers, all of whom were great. Here’s the 3-day agenda. Again, I highly recommend your purchasing the DVDs of this conference when they come out.




JFK Files Ordered Released - New Investigation Underway

Can anybody verify this report that just came in over the wire? 

Government Officially Reopens JFK Case
National News Wire Service (NNWS) 04/01/13
WASHINGTON D.C. In response to overwhelming evidence presented at the Wecht Symposium on the assassination of President Kennedy, President Obama decided to quell increasing public pressure and issued an Executive Order releasing the remaining government records on the assassination, and ordered the Department of Justice officially reopened the case.
In response to the President’s order, the Department of Justice appointed a Special Prosecutor and convened four special federal grand juries in Washington, Dallas, New Orleans and Miami that will review the evidence and take the testimony of witnesses to determine if there are any grounds to indict anyone for crimes related to the assassination, including perjury, destruction of evidence, obstruction of justice and conspiracy.
A Department of Justice spokesman said, “Since evidence produced at the Pittsburgh conference clearly demonstrated that Lee Harvey Oswald alone could not have committed the assassination, we have decided to abide by the principles and procedures of the constitution and present the evidence in its proper legal venue – the grand jury.”
According to the government spokesman, it wasn’t any one piece of evidence or new witness, but all of the evidence taken together that crimes were committed by individuals other than Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin who was killed while in Dallas police custody.
It has been suggested that the federal government is trying to counter a Dallas grand jury that has been convened by District Attorney Craig Watkins to consider the large number of cold case homicides in that city, including that of Dallas policeman J.D. Tippit, whose murder is considered connected to the assassination of the president at Dealey Plaza. “The government in Washington is afraid that there will be a runaway grand jury in Dallas, and they want to control the new investigation if there is going to be one,” said a Dallas court clerk who refused to be identified because they were not supposed to talk to the press.
Since grand jury proceedings in the United States are secret, and are convened for eighteen months, the identities of those who testify before them and what they say will not be made public, but the Presidential Executive Order releasing the remaining records will provide a treasure trove of new and previously secret records that will keep researchers, journalists and historians busy for years to come.
“I have followed the JFK case closely over the years since seeing Oliver Stone’s film,” President Obama said in signing the order, “and having been more recently inspired by James Douglas book, “Who Killed JFK and Why It Matters,” and I now realized that I can’t promote an open and transparent administration while keeping these important assassination records secret. So I have ordered them all released to the public so the citizens can read them and make up their own minds.”
In signing the order, President Obama also called on Congress to hold oversight hearings of the JFK Act of 1992 to review the work of the Assassinations Records Review Board (ARRB), determine what records were illegally destroyed and are missing, and to ensure the departments and agencies turn over all of their records on the assassination to the NARA for inclusion in the JFK Records Collection, and open to the public without restrictions. 
“At the time of the assassination, it was in the nation’s interest to seal these records to maintain our national security,” the President said in a short announcement to the media at the White House Press Room, “but today, it is in our national interest to release them to the public so the citizens can know what their government did both before and in the wake of the assassination of President Kennedy.” The President did not take any questions after making his remarks, saying that he will wait on a report from Congress and the Department of Justice after the grand juries complete their work.
The Washington D.C. Special Federal Grand Jury has already met and ordered the remains of the victims – John F. Kennedy, John B. Connally, J.D. Tippit and Lee Harvey Oswald exhumed and subjected to forensic autopsies using the latest technical equipment, but the results of those tests will not be revealed for the life of the grand jury.
Dr. Cyril Wecht, the Pittsburgh, Pa. coroner said, “I’m surprised by the government’s actions and don’t understand why they didn’t do this fifty years ago, but I’m glad they’re doing it my lifetime.”  

The Wecht Symposium, “Passing the Torch,” sponsored by the Wecht Institute of Forensic Science and Law at Duquesne University, October 17-19, 2013, in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the assassination of President Kennedy, included presentations by doctors, historians, professors, journalists, investigators and researchers who unanimously concluded that President Kennedy was not killed by one man alone and that justice must be served before the crime is relegated an historical event. 

Monday, October 14, 2013

Jack Puterbauch Checks In

On the scene of the JFK assassination: “It was chaos”

October 14, 2013 

(Editor’s Note: This year marks the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ECM Political Editor Howard Lestrud, an avid JFK item collector for more than 50 years, is writing a series of articles on Kennedy leading up to the assassination observance in November. The first in the series was on Mike Freeman, Hennepin County Attorney, and his father, Orville Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture under Kennedy. In the second segment, Lestrud talked to former Dallas Police Detective James R. Leavelle, the man handcuffed to Lee Harvey Oswald when Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby. In the third segment, Lestrud discussed the upcoming special observances planned for Nov. 22 by the city of Dallas and by the Sixth Floor Museum. In this fourth installment, former Isanti County resident Jack Puterbaugh shares his story of being in the president’s motorcade, just blocks in front of Kennedy’s car when the shooting took place.)

by Howard Lestrud
ECM Political Editor

Where were you on Nov. 22, 1963, when the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, was assassinated?

On that date, 50 years ago, many recall where they were and what they were doing. The date and time of 12:30 CST is engraved in the memory banks of many.

Former Isanti County resident Jack Puterbaugh displays a photo of then Sen. John F. Kennedy campaigning at a bean feed in Minneapolis in September 1960. Puterbaugh did advance work on Kennedy's Minnesota visit and was part of the advance team for Kennedy's visit to Dallas, Texas on Nov. 22, 1963. (Photo by Howard Lestrud, ECM Publishers)

Former Isanti County resident Jack Puterbaugh displays a photo of then Sen. John F. Kennedy campaigning at a bean feed in Minneapolis in September 1960. Puterbaugh did advance work on Kennedy’s Minnesota visit and was part of the advance team for Kennedy’s visit to Dallas, Texas on Nov. 22, 1963. (Photo by Howard Lestrud, ECM Publishers)

Former Isanti County resident Jack Puterbaugh, a longtime DFL activist, vividly recalls being in Dallas on that fateful day and riding in a car only six vehicles ahead of the presidential limousine in President Kennedy’s motorcade. Puterbaugh was part of an advance team that made plans for the president’s trip to Dallas.
The advance team that included Puterbaugh was involved with selecting the site for the president’s planned speech in Dallas, the Trade Mart. Kennedy was gunned down minutes before he was to speak at the Trade Mart.

Puterbaugh was about five blocks away in a police vehicle on the Stemmons Freeway when one of the most shocking events in the nation’s history occurred. Kennedy and Gov. John Connally were both shot by an assassin who allegedly perched in a tall building, the Texas School Book Depository Building, on Elm Street. Kennedy was fatally wounded, but Connally survived.

For the 50th anniversary of Kennedy’s assassination, Puterbaugh, 87, took time to share his connection with the events of Nov. 22, 1963.

Puterbaugh, now a resident in assisted living at Walker Place in Minneapolis, loves to tell stories from his personal history. Like a walking history book, he has a knack of pulling out experiences and dates without hesitation.

Puterbaugh has been a featured speaker in his living complex. He can talk for hours about his ties with the Minnesota DFL Party, his appointment as a state liquor commissioner, his work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, his early years as a classroom teacher and even his early years growing up in Isanti County.

From rural beginnings to politics

Puterbaugh’s grandparents immigrated to America from Sweden in 1882. The family bought a farm just west of Dalbo in Isanti County.

Recounting family history, Puterbaugh said his father met his mother when he was stationed at Fort Snelling during World War I. His mother worked at the American Linen Co. at the time. Puterbaugh and a younger brother, Karl, were educated in a one-room school with eight grades. The Sandy Knoll School was located 3 1/2 miles west of Isanti.

Laughing as he recalls his early years of moving from place to place, Puterbaugh said his parents “were like a bunch of Gypsies.” Puterbaugh and his family moved to Minneapolis in his seventh grade and returned to the one-room school in Isanti a year later when his family bought a farm near Cambridge.

Puterbaugh graduated from Cambridge High School in 1943. He enrolled at the University of Minnesota and then enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and served two years during World War II. He served state side and attended navigation school in Amarillo, Texas, to be a flight engineer. The war ended in 1945, and that also ended his schooling.

“I didn’t get my wings,” Puterbaugh said with disappointment.

Following the end of World War II, Puterbaugh married his high school classmate and sweetheart, a cadet nurse named Marvelle. He also went back to school at the University, graduating in 1948 with a degree in education.

 Puterbaugh’s first teaching job was a half year in 1950 as a science and math teacher at Grove City, located between Willmar and Litchfield. His next teaching assignment came in Worthington as a teacher of biology, chemistry and physics. At that time, Marvelle and Jack raised two boys, Greg and Steve, and a daughter, Carrie.

From Worthington, the Puterbaugh family moved to Minneapolis, where he worked at Honeywell and at Electric Machinery in Minneapolis.

Then came his involvement in politics. His parents were active in politics, his father serving as secretary of the old Farmer Labor organization in Isanti, Puterbaugh recalled. At age 9, Puterbaugh was introduced to Gov. Floyd B. Olson in 1934 when he visited Isanti to dedicate paved streets.

“I shook hands with Gov. Olson,” Puterbaugh said with pride.

He said he had the opportunity to meet many congressional and state legislative people in the 1950s. He met former Gov. Orville Freeman, former Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey, former Gov. Karl Rolvaag and former Gov. Elmer L. Andersen. Puterbaugh worked for Rolvaag in 1957 before he became governor.

Puterbaugh remembers Gov. Andersen passing legislation to reorganize the welfare department. Puterbaugh enjoyed lunch with him at the Purple Hawk Golf Club in Cambridge and talking about the Interstate 35E project, which became a campaign issue between Andersen and Rolvaag.

During his early entry into politics, Puterbaugh continued to work as an engineer for Honeywell and Electric Machinery. He then went to work for the Minnesota DFL serving as its executive secretary. He was appointed state liquor commissioner by Gov. Freeman in 1957 and served until 1961.

Preparing the way for the president

In June 1961, Puterbaugh’s career took a strange turn when Minneapolis Mayor Art Naftalin, a staunch DFLer, appointed Puterbaugh chief of police. He had no police experience. The appointment was controversial and was never approved.

Early in 1962 Puterbaugh met former Judge Miles Lord who suggested he find work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Puterbaugh became a civil service employee and worked as the assistant to the deputy of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Services. It was through this position that he became involved in advance planning for the president’s 1963 visit to Duluth.

Jack Puterbaugh is at the far left in this photo taken of then Sen. John F. Kennedy on a campaign visit to Minneapolis in September 1960. Minnesota Gov. Orville Freeman is at right.

Jack Puterbaugh is at the far left in this photo taken of then Sen. John F. Kennedy on a campaign visit to Minneapolis in September 1960. Minnesota Gov. Orville Freeman is at right.

Puterbaugh had actually been in charge of protective security for then Sen. Kennedy’s campaign appearance at a bean feed in Minneapolis in 1960. No Secret Service protection was given to presidential candidates at that time.

Puterbaugh met Kennedy at this event. He recalled traveling with Kennedy and his entourage to Duluth and to Hibbing. He rode a vehicle with Kennedy, Sen. Hubert Humphrey and Congressman John Blatnik, he said. As Kennedy’s car traveled amidst the beautiful fall colors, Kennedy remarked about the beauty of a farm in the distance. Puterbaugh said it was the old county poor farm.

“I don’t think he had any idea what it was,” Puterbaugh said.

Puterbaugh earned his stripes as an advance man for presidential visits by helping plan for Kennedy’s visit to Duluth in September 1963 for a Department of Agriculture-sponsored land and peoples conference. During that visit, Puterbaugh said, the president was working on a deal with key Minnesotans to provide wheat to the Soviet Union. Former Gov. Freeman, then Kennedy’s Secretary of Agriculture, helped with the project.
Taking it to Texas

“I have no idea,” Puterbaugh said in explaining why he was selected to be on the advance team for Kennedy’s visit to Dallas in November 1963. He said the reason he was chosen was due to a recommendation from Freeman’s executive assistant, Thomas Hughes.

Puterbaugh joined a contingency in Dallas on Nov. 12. The group included chief warrant officer Art Bales of the Army Signal Corps and Secret Service agent Win Lawson. The main task of this group was to determine whether Kennedy would speak at the Trade Mart or at the Citizens Womens Building at the Texas State Fairgrounds. The Trade Mart was finally selected.

The group also wrestled with determining how many tickets various groups would get. At that time, the DFL in Texas was in disarray with three groups fighting for leadership: First was Gov. John Connally, represented a conservative faction; second was Vice President Lyndon Johnson and House Speaker Sam Rayburn representing the middle group; and third was Sen. Ralph Yarborough representing the so-called liberals.
Puterbaugh said he and his fellow advance people became peace makers in distributing tickets and in determining seating arrangements.

Many books and magazines have been published prior to the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The city of Dallas plans special events on Nov. 22 to observe the memory of Kennedy. (Photo by Howard Lestrud, ECM Publishers)

Many books and magazines have been published prior to the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The city of Dallas plans special events on Nov. 22 to observe the memory of Kennedy. (Photo by Howard Lestrud, ECM Publishers)

Puterbaugh stayed in Dallas through Nov. 22, the day of Kennedy’s visit. He started his day at Love Field in Dallas. Kennedy and his wife Jackie arrived at about 11:30 a.m. Puterbaugh remembers JFK and Jackie shaking a lot of hands before they departed in a motorcade.

Puterbaugh said he was amazed by the large crowds of people watching the motorcade as he rode in a police-driven pilot car about five blocks ahead of the presidential limousine. As Puterbaugh’s vehicle continued past the Texas School Book Depository and toward the freeway, history was forever changed when the police radio conveyed a message to send all available police officers to the Triple Underpass.

Another message came across alerting medical people to be prepared at Parkland Hospital. Puterbaugh said his vehicle pulled over to the side of the road on the freeway as Kennedy’s limousine sped by. Puterbaugh’s pilot car, carrying six people, then followed the Kennedy limousine and other backup cars to Parkland Hospital. “I saw them take President Kennedy out of the car,” Puterbaugh said. “We knew it was very bad,” he said.

Later, Puterbaugh was driven back to the Triple Underpass area. “It was chaos,” he said. From there, he headed to the Dallas airport to arrange a flight back to Minnesota. Flights were delayed, but he did manage a return flight.

Life after 1963

“The assassination of JFK resulted in a real change in the American Experiment,” Puterbaugh said. “The country has not been the same,” he said. Puterbaugh said he has not embraced any theories as to what happened on that day but emphasized that he hasn’t seen anything to believe the assassination was a conspiracy.

Puterbaugh stayed with the Department of Agriculture until 1972 when President Richard Nixon was re-elected. He came back to Minnesota and bought a 113-acre farm east of Stanchfield. He began work as an Isanti County zoning administrator in 1977. He retired in 1988.

Puterbaugh has enjoyed retirement and still follows politics.

“It’s too bad what our country is going through,” he said. He believes the U.S. is spending too much money on the military, more than all other nations put together. “Civilizations have flourished and gone under because of reliance on the military,” he said.

Politics have changed, and Puterbaugh has witnessed much of that change. Fifty years have passed since that fateful day on Nov. 22, 1963, a day that is forever etched in Puterbaugh’s memory

Howard Lestrud can be reached at 

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Higgins Memo JCS CIA Briefing;relPageId=5


25 September 1963


Subject: Briefing by Mr. Desmond FitzGerald on
CIA Cuban Operations and Planning

• 1. At the JCS meeting at 1400 on 25 September, Mr. Desmond FitzGerald briefed the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

• 2. Except for General Taylor and Admiral McDonald, the Joint Chiefs were present, as were the Directors and Secretariat. Colonel Higgins from SACSA was the only other officer in attendance.

• 3. General LeMay opened the meeting by referring to papers recently discussed by the Joint Chiefs on policy and actions concerning military support of the CIA for operations against Cuba. General LeMay expressed the JCS position as had been reflected in the memoranda to Mr. Vance which in effect is that the Joint Chiefs do not believe that the operations to date are of a size and importance enough to justify the use of military support for protection.

• 4. Mr. FitzGerald then discussed his personal feelings as to changed conditions in Cuba. Essentially, he believes that Castro's hold in Cuba has been seriously weakened since last July. He believes that the minor raids conducted by the CIA have contributed to this deterioration in Castro's influence and stability. He is firmly convinced that Castro will fall at some future, not too distant, date, and that such actions as the CIA are conducting, as well as those of exiles, are contributing to unrest and unsettlement.

• 5. Mr. FitzGerald, in commenting upon criteria as to when the military support should be provided, offered the following. The greatest danger from his point of view is that the mother ships may be captured rather than be sunk. This will result in the capture of crewmen who have too much information and which could result in dangerous publicity for the United States. The location of these raids contributes to the possibility of capture. Hence, only when the raids are conducted in the more vulnerable areas from that point of view, is it likely that the CIA will request military support. He further stated that CIA has no intention of requesting aid for the coming raid.

• 6. General LeMay questioned the danger of capture in view of the capabilities of Cubans and ridiculed the idea that small motor boats should have the capability of such a ship.

• 7. General LeMay and others gave opinions concerning such technicalities as the capability of radar both on land and in the air, capability of ship radar of the U.S. and Cuba, the speed of the mother ship, which was cited as 10 to 12 knots, and other related items.

• 8. Mr. FitzGerald made much of the Cuban volatile nature. He cited that many Cubans are now walking with their heads up and alert because of the realization that there are possibilities of raids and other outside supports, such as the light aircraft raids. He voiced the opinion that Castro would probably take desperate measures as his situation further deteriorates and would turn to creating revolutions in Latin America. He stated that even though his operations may be considered only minor, he thought they were doing about as much as could be done under the present policies. One of his problems was that he felt there was only a total of 50 logical targets and if he conducted as many as 10 raids a month, he would be unable to sustain the build-up of Cuban hopes. He further stated that there were times when certain types of raids were more favorable than others; for instance, on sugar centrals.

• 9. In responding to the question concerning the non-attributality of U.S. equipment, he stated that all equipment they use could be bought on the open market in many countries, even though it was of American origin. He stated that intelligence was not as good yet as they would like to have; however, they are having greater success in having agents enter and depart Cuba.

• 10. General Wheeler injected that he sympathizes with such planners as Mr. FitzGerald because he realizes that many good ideas are never accepted by the cautious policy makers. However, Mr. FitzGerald reported that he believes he had a clearer go-ahead on these operations than he has ever had in his past experience.

• 11. Mr. FitzGerald said that over the next two or three months his plans include critical targets of three classes: electrical systems, sugar centrals, and oil. He cited that electrical systems, although a top priority and a key to the economy, were very difficult targets. The sugar centrals were only of a seasonal nature because unless hit at the peak season, they could be repaired without difficulty or loss of time. In regard to oil, the refineries are most important but were also toughest to hit.

• 12. In response to a comment by General Shoup regarding the sabotage of mines Mr. FitzGerald said there had been a recent case of internal sabotage in a mine. He then explained how the success of his operations can only be measured when internal sabotage is increased. In response to a question, he admitted that there was not any coordination as yet with the internal sabotage program.

• 13. He commented that there was nothing new in the propaganda field. However, he felt that there had been great success in getting closer to the military personnel who might break with Castro, and stated that there were at least ten high-level military personnel who are talking with CIA but as yet are not talking to each other, since that degree of confidence has not yet developed. He considers it as a parallel in history; i.e., the plot to kill Hitler; and this plot is being studied in detail to develop an approach.

• 14. General LeMay then questioned the advisability of utilizing a communication technique to install a radio capability which would permit break-in on Castro broadcasts. He stated that an Air Force officer named McElroy was available to talk to Mr. FitzGerald on the matter, and Mr. FitzGerald accepted this offer.

• 15. The conference closed with General LeMay directing that Mr. FitzGerald's planners meet with General Krulak's people and work out the details as to how the military can assist in supporting these operations. After Mr. FitzGerald departed, General LeMay gave added directions to Colonel Higgins to initiate necessary steps for planning.

• 16. After the JCS meeting Admiral Riley called Colonel Higgins into his office and read a letter from Mr. McGeorge Bundy which discussed secrecy measures necessary related to Cuba CIA operations. Admiral Riley directed Colonel Higgins to have the nature of this letter put out through SACSA control to SACSA contact points to insure an adequate system for secrecy within the military services. Admiral Riley stated he was returning the letter to Mr. Gilpatric as he did not want written communication by SACSA, but to put this out orally. This was transmitted to Colonel Wyman who will take the action to prepare an appropriate memorandum for the record to be filed with General Ingelido in accordance with further direction by Admiral Riley.

• 17. General Wheeler, Chief of Staff of the Army, called and questioned us concerning SACSA's access for the knowledge of such operations as mentioned in the McGeorge Bundy letter. I advised him that our Pendulum system was in being but that I would look into it in greater detail to determine that it met the letter as well as the spirit of the memorandum. I stated I believed this was so but had not had reason to do it until this date and therefore did not give him a positive answer at that time.

Colonel, USA

 [September 25, 1963 Joint Chiefs of Staff Memo for the Record, Walter Higgins, Briefing by Mr. Desmond Fitzgerald on CIA Cuban Operations and Planning, JFK Collection, (JCS Papers, J-3,#29 NARA. Riff202-10001-10028)

[Higgins may have also wrote the Memo for a Aug. 5, 1963 briefing of JCS – Memo by Col. Walter M. Higgins, Jr., Executive Officer, SACSA, briefing of JCS by Fitzgerald, Aug. 5, 1963, box 1, RG 218, JCS Records, JFK Assassination Records Collection (NA);]

Prouty Interview on Office of SACSA

Dave Ratcliffe interview with Fletcher Prouty.html
Dispersion of the OSO, Creation of the Office of SACSA
Ratcliffe: We've discussed briefly before, your office -- the Office of Special Operations -- being transferred in either late '61 or early '62 out of the Office of the Secretary of Defense and into the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. I'd like your ideas about the importance and significance of this change with the concurrence of your office being transferred from OSD to the Joint Staff and how, to quote you directly, "as a progression of this first move, the Joint Staff created an office called the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities, or SACSA."[2]

Prouty: There had been an Office of Special Operations in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, ever since its establishment in 1947-48 under Secretary Forrestal. That office was there to take the directives from NSC that had to do with covert operations and translate them into Defense Department action.

When Kennedy was elected, General Erskine had been working on an Eisenhower-directed study to establish, in the Defense establishment, a Defense Intelligence Agency. It was quite apparent that, although the CIA existed, it did not emphasize military intelligence gathering adequately for the intelligence careerists and professionals in the military. They felt that a common Defense establishment (DIA) would improve the military intelligence area. In many ways it would counterbalance the CIA for their own benefit. General Erskine, the long-time head of the Office of Special Operations, is the one who wrote that study.

When that study was concluded after Kennedy's inauguration -- and I believe almost on the day of the Bay of Pigs exercise, if I remember the date it seemed to me it came on almost the identical day -- it was approved by Secretary McNamara, shortly after the General had given it to him. Shortly thereafter General Erskine, who had then been in the Pentagon for more years than any other Assistant to the Secretary had ever been there, retired.

The question for McNamara then was: Should he retain OSO as it had been and try to put another man in there, or should he divide it into other functions? First of all, OSO was responsible for the overview of NSA. In the technical world that had developed in those latter years, with satellites, U-2's and SR-71's and all that, much of that work had moved over into what we called DDR&E (the Deputy of Defense for Research and Engineering). So that area of responsibility was transferred from OSO to DDR&E. That took away one big role from OSO. Another function in the Office of the Secretary of Defense that had moved was ISA (International Security Agency), and much of their role was in connection and coordination with the State Department. So that responsibility, which had been in OSO, was moved to ISA.

Then you get to this area of Special Operations (the support of the clandestine activities). The active work that was required for this task, for the most part took place in the services. But the three services had always been running each office independently. During the five years I ran that office in the Air Force, there was an Army counterpart and a Navy counterpart, and although we worked together frequently, it was more or less an ad hoc arrangement. We worked together, like for the Bay of Pigs, because we had to. It was a necessity. But we didn't work together on policy matters or on budget matters, which are so important. Each service did that independently.

So I was called in by General Wheeler (who at that time was the Director of the Joint Staff; this was a couple of years before he became the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) and asked what I thought about bringing the Special Operations function into the JCS. And of course I immediately approved it because I saw the rest of the OSO office going. In fact, they had gone and I had the only office left there, with a functional job but with no title. My boss General Erskine had gone. General Lansdale was doing some special work for Deputy Secretary of Defense, Mr. Gilpatric, and was making trips to not only Vietnam but to Central America at that time (which for Lansdale was quite a new thing).

I told General Wheeler that I thought it would be a fine move to set up Special Operations under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to create an office that would unify the work of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force (including the Marine Corps). General Wheeler agreed with that and arranged a meeting with Mr. McNamara.

When we went up to see him, Mr. McNamara said, `I will take care of getting the increase in the manning allotments for the Joint Chiefs of Staff (which were limited to 400) sufficient to create this office, and you can go ahead and set up the office.' So I moved from the physical area of the Secretary of Defense downstairs to the JCS area. An Army officer was assigned to my office, along with one or two staff, and a Navy officer, along with one or two staff. We had probably eight or ten people. And we established the Special Operations branch of what became SACSA -- the Office of the Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities.

The SACSA development was very interesting. Nothing had existed in the Joint Staff like that before. This was a "Special Assistant" to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities: two roles that are not traditionally prime military roles. But during the Vietnam era they became extremely important. This function brought with it another very important office that you hear little about, and that's the office that handles Cover and Deception. Deception is a very important type of Special Operation.

You create things that you want to have discovered that are wrong: so that Moscow would think we had a gun that worked the way it worked and it didn't work, or a rocket that worked the way it did and it wouldn't work, or that we sent people to some place to do a job that they'd think we were going to do and we were never going to do it. This is important because when we set up the Bay of Pigs -- on account of Deception, if the Russians found out about that or if Castro found out about it -- they wouldn't know whether that was Deception or whether we were going to do it. 

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Oswald Interrogatons Time Line

This information is taken from
John Armstrong's Harvey & Lee –
1963 November 22-23 (Oswald in Custody) p. 877-936
Oswald's Interrogation Timeline

2 pm Oswald taken to 3rd Floor Homicide and Robbery – under command of Capt. Fritz
In the interrogation room he is questioned by Detectives Sims and Boyd
2:20 pm  - Oswald taken to Fritz’s office where he is questioned for the first time by Capt. Fritz.
Also present are: Det. Sims, Det. Boyd, SS Insptector Kelley
2:39 pm – LBJ sworn in by Justice Hughes aboard AF1
2:50 pm – FBI SA James Hosty arrived at DPD HQ with an OSI agent of USAF? – meets Jack Revill.
Also photo of Revill and Hosty – taken by AP Fred Kaufman?

3:10 pm – WFAA Dallas broadcasts first photo of Oswald – and identifies him as a suspect.
3:15 pm – Hosty enters Fritz’s office and joins Oswald interrogation with FBI SA Bookout.
3:54 pm – NBC newsman Bill Ryan – “Lee Oswald seems to be the prime suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.”
4:05 pm – First interrogation session interrupted for a police lineup – Helen Markham
4:10 pm – Oswald searched Detective Simms – who takes Oswald’s USMC ring, and five live rounds of .38 bullets are found in his left front pants pocket. Bus transfer 4459 found in left pocket of brown shirt.
4:35 pm – First Lineup – w/ W. E. “Bill” Perry (DPD officer in suit coat), DPD officer R. L. Clark, and jail clerk Don Ables.
4:45 pm – Oswald interrogation continued, w/ Capt. Fritz, SA Hosty, SA Bookhout, SSI Kelly and SS SAIC Forrest Sorrels, and possibly DPD Detectives.
Fritz asks Oswald if he had killed the President – Bookhout – “He spoke very loudly…he gave an emphatic denial….I suppose the word ‘frantically’ would probably describe it.” 71
Armstrong: “DPD officer Marrion Baker returned to DPD headquarters and parked his motorcycle at the end of his shift. After giving a statement relating to his activities at the time of the assassination Baker walked by Fritz’s office. He overheard one of the interrogator shout at Oswald, ‘Did you kill the President?...Did you kill the President?’ Oswald shouted back, ‘That’s absurd, I want a lawyer, I want a lawyer!” 73 Baker’s testimony shows that certain statements made by Oswald in his defense were not recorded by his interrogators or reported to the Warren Commission.”
6:20 pm. First interrogation session ends.
Capt. Fritz: “I noted that in questioning him that he did answer very quickly, and I asked him if he had ever been questioned before, and he told me that he had. Every time I asked him a question that meant something, that would produce evidence, he immediately told me he wouldn’t tell me about it and he seemed to anticipate what I was going to ask.” 75

Fritz: “You didn’t have to sit there very long and listen to them talk to Oswald to realize that this guy had been trained in interrogation. By that I mean resisting interrogation.”
6:20 pm  – Oswald taken by Dets. Sims, Boyd and Hall to basement for 2nd lineup w/ Perry, Clark and Ables (for bus driver Cecil McWatters, Ted Callaway and Sam Guinyard).
Walking down the hall Oswald says: “I don’t know what this is about,…I didn’t shoot anyone…I never killed anybody.”
6:30 pm. – Hosty taken off the case by senior FBI Counterintelligence officer – who ordered him to have “no further discussion with Oswald and conduct no investigation of Oswald’s background.” 80
6: 37 pm – Oswald returned to Capt. Fritz’s office by Dets. Sims, Boyd and Hall.
In hall Oswald says: “I don’t know where you get your information. I haven’t committed any acts of violence….I want to get with a lawyer, Mr. Abt, in New York City….I never killed anybody.” 94

7:00 Vic Robertson of KFAA –TV saw Ruby try to enter Capt. Fritz’s office while Oswald being questioned.
7:04 pm – Justice of the Peace David Johnston and Asst. DA Bill Alexander enter Fritz’s office to have Fritz sign a complaint charging Oswald “With Malice Afterthought” in the murder of Officer J.D. Tippit.
7:10 Johnston reads the complaint to Oswald

Armstrong notes: “The charge against Oswald would have required the State of Texas to prove that Oswald went to 10th and Patton with the intention of killing Tippit (premeditation), which would have been nearly impossible.

7:15 pm – Oswald’s Second Interrogation Session w/ FBI SA Manny Clements, SA Bookout. Clements obtains detailed background info from Oswald for approximately 30 minutes. 103
7:40 pm (approx) Oswald taken for another lineup w/ DPD Det. Sims and Boyd, while Clements examines contents of Oswald’s wallet. 104 including DD 1173
Third lineup includes Richard Walker (prisoner), Ellis Carl Brazel (prisoners) and jail clerk Don Ables (for Barbara Jeanette and Virginai Ruth Davis)
7:55 pm – Sims and Boyd return Oswald to Fritz’s office.
In hall Oswald says: “They’ve taken me in because of the fact that I’ve lived in the Soviet Union. I’m just a patsy.” 114

In Fritz’s office FBI SA Clements questioned Oswald for another hour and a half, re: Alek James Hidell, past residences and occupations.
Clements- “He responded to my questions…he was courteous, responsive as to any questions, volunteered very little information…he seemed to be in command of himself both physically and mentally. He had what appeared to me to be a slightly haughty or arrogant attitude.” 112

8:55 pm – Oswald is fingerprinted in Fritz’s office by Det. Johnny Hicks and R. L. Studebaker of the DPD crime lab. Oswald refuses to sign fingerprint card. Also present are Capt George Doughty, head of crime lab, and Sgt. Barnes and Det. Hicks, who take paraffin casts of Oswald’s hands and right cheek. 113
9 pm – Chief Curry tells officer to take Oswald to the showup room in the basement for a press conference.

11 pm. SA Manny Clements resumed his questioning of Oswald w/ DPD Dets. John Adamcik and L.D. Montgomery, until Oswald says, “I think I have talked long enough. I don’t have anything else to say…what started out to be a short interrogation turned out to be rather lengthy…I don’t care to talk anymore….I am waiting for someone to come forward and give me legal assistance.”

11:15 pm. Chief Curry’s press conference begins, w/Ruby present.
11:25 pm. Oswald taken to police assembly (showup) room where DA Henry Wade read a prepared statement about Oswald – Ruby (“I’m a reporter tonight”) corrects him “That’s the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, Henry.”

11:26pm Capt. Fritz signs a formal complaint charging Oswald with the murder of President Kennedy. 136

Oswald tells reporters: “Well, I was questioned by Judge Johnston. However, I protested at that time that I was not allowed legal representation during that very short and sweet hearing. I really don’t know what this situation is all about. Nobody has told me anything except that I am accused of murdering a policeman. I know nothing more than that, and I do request that someone come forward and give me legal assistance.”
A reporter asked him, “Did you kill the President?”

Oswald: “No, I have not been charged with that. In fact, nobody has said that to me yet. The first thing I heard about it was when the newspaper reporters in the hall asked me that question.”
Chief Curry: “You have been charged.”

Oswald visibly shaken by Curry’s remark, as being led away said, “I did not do it. I did not do it. I did not shoot anyone.”
After the press conference Ruby gives Judge Johnston a Carousel Club card and arranges for WNEW newman Icarus Ike Pappas to interview Henry Wade.

12: 10 pm Oswald then taken to maximum-security cell on 5th floor F Block.
12:23 am. Oswald is taken to 4th floor Identification Bureau by Sgt. Wilson Warren, and T.V. Todd, fingerprinted for second time and photographed.
1:10 am – Oswald returned to his cell by Wilson and Todd.

1:15 am – Ruby arranges interview between Wade and KLIF radio man Russ Knight – Ruby asks Knight to ask Wade if Oswald is insane. 
1:35 am – Oswald taken back to 4th floor ID Bureau and then taken before Justice of the Peace David Johnston, who arranged Oswald for the “Murder With Malice of John F. Kennedy.”

Oswald: “I don’t know what you are talking about. What’s the idea of this? What are you ding this for?....Well, I guess this is the trial. I want to contact my lawyer, Mr. Abt, in New York City. I would like to have this gentleman. He is with the American Civil Liberties Union.” 
Oswald then returned to his cell on 5th Floor F Block

Chief Curry – around midnight decided to let the FBI have all the evidence and without written inventory,
3:30 am - FBI agent Vince Drain departed Carswell AFB on C-130 tanker with evidence to DC

FBI memo written from Mexico City around this time says: “If Oswald was part of a foreign conspiracy, he might be killed before he could reveal lit to US authorities.”
10:30 am – Oswald’s Third Interrogation, w/Dets. Sims and Boyd check Oswald out of his cell and brought him to Fritz’s office, w/ Det. Billy L. Senkel, Dets. Fay M. Turner, SA Bookhout, US Marshall Robert Nash SSSAIC Forrest Sorrels, SS Agent David B. Grant, SS Inspector Thomas J. Kelley and Frits. 186
Fritz: Oswald said: “Ate lunch with some of the colored boys.”
Bookhout: “He had eaten lunch in the lunchroom at the Texas School Book Depository, alone, but recalled possibly two negro employees walking through the room during this period.”
11:25 am – Chief Jesse Curry tells UPI reporters that the FBI agents had interviewed Oswald recently and had him under surveillance. J. E. Hoover instructs C.D. DeLoach to contact FBI SAIC Gordon Shanklin to instruct Curry to retract his statements and make no more.

11:30 am – Frtiz terminates the interview and Boyd and Sims return Oswald to his cell
12:30 pm – Judge Joe Brown, Jr. issues search warrant for 2515 W. 5th St. Irving Paine residence for Dets. Stovall, Moore, Adamcick and Rose, Irving PD det. McCabe.

12:35 pm. Oswald taken to Fritz’s officer for Fourth Interrogation session w/ SS Ins. Kelley, Dets. Senkel, Tiernon, SA Bookhout and Fritz. Fritz questions Oswald about the backyard photos.
1:00 pm. Marguerite and Marina Oswald granted permission to visit prisoner.

1:10 pm. Oswald returned to his cell.
1:15 pm. Chief Currey rephrased his remarks and told NBC TV FBI did not have previous info on Oswald. 201
1:15 pm Oswald removed from 5th floor cell by “Stacy” 214 to meet with Marina and Marguerite.

2:15 pm. – Oswald’s fourth lineup w/  prisoners John Thurman Horne, Daniel Edmond Knapp and Daniel Gutierrez Lujan  (for cab drivers William Whaley, William Scoggins). Oswald uncooperative and causes disturbance.

2:45 pm At the request of FBI agent Hall, Det. J. Donihoo and Bobby G. Brown went to Oswald’s cell and obtained hair samples and fingerprint scrapings, placed in round pill boxes and given to Agent Hall.
3:37 pm – Oswald removed from his cell to see brother Robert Oswald  
“I don’t know what they’re talking about. Don’t believe all this so-called evidence.”

4:00 pm – Oswald requests permission to use telephone. Oswald tries to reach Abt in NYC and calls Mrs. Paine and asks her to try to contact him but there’s no indication she did.
4:00 pm. Chief Curry asks Fritz if he was finished questioning Oswald and Fritz said he wanted to begin questioning him again at 6 pm. Curry and Fritz reject the idea of moving Oswald at night and agree to move him to County Jail at Dealey Plaza at 10 am the next day.

5:30 pm President of the Dallas Bar Association H. Louis Nichols visits Oswald in his cell. Oswald said he is being “kept incommunicado.”
6:00 pm. Oswald taken to his Sixth Interrogation session at Fritz’s office w/ Fritz, Det. Sims, L.C. Graves, M.G. Hall, SS Insp. Kelley, FBI SA Bookout and Det. Gus Rose, who had just returned from Paine residence w/ backyard photos blown up by the DPD photo.

7:15 pm. Oswald returned to his cell.
8:00 pm Oswald asks DPD police officer J. L. Popplewell, to use telephone, spoke to someone for nearly half hour,

8:15 pm Chief Curry hold press conference, telling reporters that Oswald would not be transferred that evening but next morning at 10 am.
9:30 – Oswald calls Mrs. Paine and asks for Marina

10:00 pm. – Sixth Interrogation of Oswald in Fritz’s office with just Capt. Fritz
10:45 pm. – Oswald asks to use phone to call Mr. John Hurt in North Carolina.

9:30 am – November 24, 1963 Oswald’s last interrogation, w/ Fritz, Kelley, Sorrels, Dets. Levelle, Capt. C.N. Dhority,  and Postal Inspector Harry Holmes, L.C. Graves (arrives late)
11:10 am – Oswald given sweater to wear and asked if he wanted to cover his face and he said no.
“The only responsible deduction you can make is that Oswald was a double agent. He was the most arrogant son of a bitch I’ve ever questioned. Oswald was obviously trained to resist interrogation, he couldn’t have known how to do it on his own.”