Monday, August 26, 2013

Timeline of Certain Pertinent Events

Richard Hocking's Timeline of certain events

How did the shooters get in and out of the TSBD? - Page 6 - JFK Assassination Debate - The Education Forum

Timeline:
12:00: Eddie Piper sees Oswald on the 1st floor of the TSBD. 1
12:00 – 12:10: (estimated time) Bonnie Ray Williams goes to 6th floor to eat lunch (sees and hears no one) (?) 2
12:12: Carolyn Arnold sees Oswald in hallway between front door and double doors a few minutes before 12:15 3
12:15– 12:25: Carolyn Arnold sees Oswald in the1st floor Lunch Room 4
12:15: Arnold Rowland sees man with Rifle on 6th floor West Window (slender, dark hair, light shirt open at neck; other man was "colored" hanging out of East corner window5
12:15– 12:20: BRW takes elevator from 6th to 5th floor leaving Dr.Pepper bottle and partially eaten chicken behind (?) (sees and hears no one) 6
12:18: Howard Brennan sees man on 6th floor (no rifle visible at this time). (w/m, early30's, slender, 165-75, light clothing) 7
12:20- 12:25: Carolyn Arnold looks through glass door and sees Oswald inside on 1st floor near front of TSBD 8
12:26- 12:30: Ruby Henderson sees two men on 6th/ or Top floor. One dark (Mexican or Negro), and was wearing a white shirt. The other man was the taller and lighter of the two 
12:28: Richard Carr sees heavy set man, what, glasses, tan sport coat in 2nd window from East corner, 6th floor. 10 
12:29: Carolyn Walther sees two men w/ Rifle in 5th floor SE corner Window. (one man wearing brown suit coat) 11
12:29 Robert Edwards see w/m in 6th floor SE corner window, light colored shirt, short sleeve, open neck, possibly thin 12 
12:29 Ronald Fischer sees Man in 5th floor "right corner" window, man was laying down,could only see head, light headed and open neck shirt, man was in his twenties (Fischer will later change floor to 6th and shots from 4 to 3.) 13
12:29 – 12:30: Geneva Hine notes the lights are out on her phone system as motorcade approaches TSBD. 14

12: 30 Oswald said he was on the first floor at the time of the shooting then went up to the second floor to get a coke. 

12:30 "Prayer Man" standing on top of the TSBD front stairs by the glass door, Frazer also says he is located there, with William Shelley and Lovelady on the steps below him. 

12:30: Shots fired at JFK Limo.
12:30: Amos Euins sees Blackman with rifle in 6th floor SE corner window (later changed to white man) 15 This man firing the rifle also has white shirt and bald spot on top of head. 
12:30: Howard Brennan sees white man w white shirt and Rifle in 6th floor SE corner window 16
12:30: Jack Dougherty is 10 feet west of West Elevator on 5th floor (within sight and sound of NW stairs); hears one shot. 17
12:30: Dillard Photo taken 3-15 seconds after shots shows Norman and Williams in SE 5th floor corner windows (and possibly Jarman inthe 4th window from the SE corner). They say they run to West Window after shots. 18
12:31: Vicky Adams and Sandra Styles descend the NW Rear stairs from the 4th floor to the 1st floor (see & hear no one). 19
12:31: Otis Williams runs up NW stairway to 4th floor (sees no one) goes back to his 2nd floor office (?) 20
12:31: Officer Baker enters TSBD front Entrance, runs past "Prayer Man" and goes to back w Truly, who shouts twice to release elevator. (no response). They see 2 white men by the elevators. (probably Shelley and Lovelady according to Adams) 21
12:31: Officer Barnett runs to guard back of TSBD (and Fire Escape on East Side). 22
12:31:30: Officer Baker and Roy Truly on 2nd floor by NW stairway; claim to see Oswald in Lunch room. 21
12:32: HSCA analysis show boxes in 6th floor window rearranged within 2 minutes of shooting. 22
12:32 – 12:33 Mrs. Reid returns to her 2nd floor office. Oswald calmly walks by her with coke in hand. 23
12:32 – 12:33 Deputy Roger Craig arrests a woman in her early thirties attempting to drive out of a private railyard parking lot. She was in a brown 1962 or 1963 Chevrolet . Craig turns her over to Deputy Sheriff Lummy Lewis. 24
12:32– 12:36: Carr sees the same man he previously saw in the window, walk away from the TSBD and get into a Rambler Station Wagon 10
12:32– 12:33: Officer Baker sees man on 3rd or 4th floor, w/m, 30 yrs old, 5'9, 165 lb, dark hair, light brown jacket. Manager vouches for this man and Baker lets him go. (Baker 11/22/63 affidavit) 25
12:33– 12:34: Officer Barnett moves from Back of TSBD to guard the Front entrance . 22
12:33 James Worrell see a man in a dark sportcoat and light colored pants dash out of the back of the TSBD about 3 minutes after shots fired at motorcade. Man was late 20's /early 30's, 5'8", dark brown hair. Ran South on Houston. 26
12:33– 12:34: Dougherty takes West Elevator down to 1st floor. (?) Talks to Givens. 27
12:33– 12:34: Baker and Truly on 4th or 5th floor, spot East Elevator, but West elevator is missing 28 They take the East Elevator to the seventh floor and find nothing, return to fourth floor where Baker reports to Inspector Sawyer, the senior Dallas Police Department officer in the building. 
12:33– 12:36: Officers Mooney, Vickery and Webster arrive at 1st floor rear elevator. Vickery and Webster take stairs up. Mooney takes elevator up to 2nd floor, where power goes off, he switches to the stairs and encounters " some men he believes to be officers" in plain clothes coming down the stairs. He passes these men and continues up. 29
12:33– 12:36: In his report of 11/23/63, Det. Harry Weatherford claims that he, Mooney, Boone, Walters, and Webster all went into the rear of the TSBD together and ascend the stairs. Weatherford goes out the window to search the roof of the loading dock, then comes back in and searches the first floor [sic] with an "unknown DPD Detective" (?) Then he goes to the top floor and eventually joins Mooney and Co. on the 6th floor 30
12:34– 12:35:From across the street court clerk Lillian Mooneyham sees man standing by boxes on 6th floor of TSBD. 31
12:34– 12:36: Officer Mooney arrives for first quick survey (does not go to "sniper lair") of 6th flloor, sees no one, then goes up to 7th floor. 29
12:34: Inspector Sawyer enters Front of TSBD, enters Passenger elevator; runs into "this Man"; goes up to 4th floor32
12:35: Baker and Truly are on roof of TSBD 33
12:36: Euins tells Officer Harkness shots came from 5th floor TSBD 34
12:36– 12:37: Harkness arrives at rear (North Loading dock) door of TSBD. Sees "some Secret Service Agents".35
12:37: Sawyer retrurns to 1st floor, goes out in front to set up Command Post. 32
12:40 – 12:45: Dep. Craig hears whistle. Sees light green Nash Rambler Station Wagon stop; sees w/m, 140-150, brown hair, in his 20's, white T shirt, runs down slope and gets inside. The Driver of the vehicle was husky latin, dark wavy hair, tan windbreaker jacket. Craig runs over to report this to the Command Post in front of the TSBD entrance and encounters a SS Agent ("40 years old, sandy-haired with a distinct cleft in his chin. He was well-dressed in a gray business suit") 24
12:45: Description of suspect broadcast by DPD: w/m, 30, 5'10, 165, 30-30 (Winchester Rifle on Channel 2) 36
12:50 – 12:55: SSA Forest Sorrels returns from Parkland Hospital to the rear entrance of the TSBD and enters the building with no one checking his ID, the first genuine SS Agent to arrive on the scene. 37
12:58: Captain Fritz arrives at front entrance of TSBD 38
12:58: Mooney Leans out window and Signals Fritz, who is standing in front of TSBD (After leaving the 7thfloor,Mooney, Vickery, and Webster went down to 6th floor, where Mooney discovered SE corner window "sniper lair", empty shells, chicken remnants and soda.. 39
1:22: Boone and Weitzman discover Rifle they idenitfy as a 7.65 Mauser, concealed between boxes on the 6th floor40
1:22 Truly tells DPD Capt. Lumpkin that one of his men - Oswald is missing. Lumplin confers privately with two or three other senior DPD officers and then escorts Truly up to the Sixth Floor where they interupt Capt. Fritz examining the rifle and Lumpkin tells Fritz that Truly has something important to tell Fritz, and Truly tells Frtiz about the missing employee - Oswald, and give Fritz Oswald's address at Mrs. Paine's home in Irving. Fritz then walks across the street to Sheriff Decker's office where they confer privately before Fritz returns to his DPD office, where Oswald, under arrest, is waiting for him, having been arrested in the Tippit shooting. 

[BK Notes, my additions to this chronology are not footnoted as to their source.] 

References:

1. Eddie Piper Dallas Sheriff Affidavit of 11/23/63; also WC Testimony
2. Bonnie Ray Williams WC testimony , Vol. III, pp 169-173 (left 6th floor at 12:20; was up there for 15 minutes)
3. CD5:41 Archives from Mary Ferrell Timeline
4. Anthony Summers 1978 interview with Carolyn Arnold/ Jim Marrs, Crossfire p. 49
5. Arnold Rowland, interviewed by Arlen Specter and Gerald Ford before the Warren Commission (10th March, 1964) 
6. Bonnie Ray Williams WC testimony , Vol.III – Page 173, March 24, 1964; http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page173.php
7. Howard Brennan Dallas Sheriff statement: November 22, 1963. (Description). Howard Brennan FBI Report: January 7,1964. (Gave 12:18 as time of sighting)
8. Arnold's 26 Nov 1963 statement is published by Weisberg (1967) p. 210, with discussion on pp. 74-75.The original handwritten statement says 12:25. When retyped by the FBI the time was changed to 12:15 (Guth & Wrone 1980, p. xxxii).
 This is cited by Don Thomas in Rewriting History:Bugliosi Parses the Testimony, http://www.maryferre...s_the_Testimony
9. Ruby Henderson FBI statement of 12/6/63. Saw men on 6th floor after ambulance had departed.
10. Richard Randolph Carr: http://www.aarclibra...DealeyPlaza.pdf, p. 8
11. http://www.aarclibra...DealeyPlaza.pdf

12. Robert Edwards WC Testimony on April 9. 1964, Vol VI, pp. 203- http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page203.php

13. Ronald Fischer Dallas Sheriff's Statement: November 22, 1963. 19H475; FBI Report: December 2,1963. CD205 
14. Geneva Hines WC Testimony, 4/7/64 http://www.aarclibra...df/WH6_Hine.pdf
15. James Underwood WC Deposition,4/1/64, Vol. VI, p. 170, http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page168.php
16. Howard Brennan Sheriff Statement: http://jfk.ci.dallas...28/2823-001.gif
17. Jack Daugherty WC testimony: http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page380.php
18. Dillard photo. Regarding Jarman: Mike Regan says Gary Mack told him he examined the negatives which confirmed Jarman in the 4thwindow from the SE Corner. http://educationforu...opic=4624&st=45 post #50.
19. Vicky Adams Warren Commission Testimony, 4/7/64
20. The Elevator Escape Theory by Richard Gilbride, http://www.reopenken...t/gilbride.html,pp 21-22
21. Officer Baker WC Testimony, Vol. III pp.247-263
22. from Comparison of Dillard and Powell photos, 6HSCA 110-115
23. Mrs. Robert Reid WC Testimony, http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page274.php
24. Roger Craig, When They Kill A President, 1, http://www.ratical.o.../JFK/WTKaP.html
25. (Officer Baker Affidavit), http://jfk.ci.dallas...04/0426-001.gif
26. James Worrell WC Testimony, Vol. II, p. 196, http://www.jfk-assas...ol2/page196.php
27. Jack Dougherty WC Testimony, Vol. VI, p 380, http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page380.php
28. Baker WC Testimony, Vol. III, pp. 258-259 http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page258.php
29. Luke Mooney WC Testimony, Vol. III, pp. 283-284 http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page283.php
30. Harry Weatherford, Dallas Sheriff Supplementary Investigation Report, http://mcadams.posc....ny/weatherf.htm
31. Lillian Mooneyham, FBI Report: January 10, 1964, 24H531
32. Ins. Sawyer WC Testimony, Vol VI, pp 318-320, http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page319.php
33. Baker WC Testimony Vol. III, p 262 http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page262.php (Baker took total of 15 minutes, spent about 10 minutes on roof)
34. Harkness WC Testimony, Vol. VI, p. 310 http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page310.php
35. Harkness WC Testimony, Vol. VI, p. 312, http://www.jfk-assas...ol6/page312.php
36. DPD Description of Suspect broadcast; Mary Ferrell Chronologies Vol 4 Nov 22 1963 pg 172, Tape #1 gives 12:37-12:45; JFK Assassination Chronology 22 Nov 1963 pg 49 gives 12:45 as time; http://www.terra.es/...rios/cintas.htm gives 12:45
37. SSA Forest Sorrels, Vol VII, p. 347-348,WC testimony, http://www.jfk-assas...ol7/page347.php
38. Captain Fritz, WC Testimony, Vol IV, p.204 http://www.jfk-assas...ol4/page204.php
39. Mooney signals Fritz, http://www.jfk-assas...ol3/page284.php, Fritz arrived and was in frontof TSBD at 12:58, then went inside according to his WC testimony, 37 
40. Dep. Eugene Boone, WC testimony, Vol 6, pp 204-205. http://www.jfk-assas...ol4/page205.php

Other Related Reading:

"The Elevator Escape Theory" by Richard Gilbride, http://www.reopenken...t/gilbride.html
Greg Parker Website; http://reopenkennedy...-cop-encounters
"The Man in the Dark Sports Coat" by William Weston http://www.manuscrip...PQ/sports~1.htm
Duke Lane thread on Lancer forum : http://www.jfklancer...g_id=82512
Don Thomas , "Rewriting History: Bugliosi Parses the Testimony" http://www.maryferre...s_the_Testimony
"Dealey Plaza Conspiracy Witnesses, HSCA Staff Report", http://www.aarclibra...DealeyPlaza.pdf
"A Comprehensive Review of Reclaiming History", by James DiEugenio
Questions and observations:
1. Electrical Power Events: Geneva Hine's phone system lights go off, just before12:30. Was this a power outage or just no calls at that time?; Truly and Baker are unable to get an elevator down from the 5th floor less than a minute after the shots. Sandra Styles said she and Vicky Adams tried thepassenger elevator in front, but when it did not work, they went to the backstairs. The West elevator has power when Mooney gets on the 1st floor,then loses power on the 2nd floor, 12:33-12:36. Who cut power to elevator at that precise moment? Select Elevator circuits and possiblyt he phone system circuit were reported off, but I have seen no report of all power to the TSBD being off, which would have happened if the Main Circuit breaker was thrown. The 3 elevators would have been on their own dedicated circuits, as would the phone system. The evidence supports the possibility that selected circuits may have been turned on/off at various times just before and after 12:30. This rules out random fuse failure (or circuit breakers being tripped) and supports the notion of manipulation of the power circuits. Was the Fuse/Breaker box located in the basement of the TSBD?
2. Why is there no exchange of information with Mooney when he is passing the men he believes might be DPD officers on the stairs? They would have been the very first respondents on the scene. If you were Mooney, wouldn't you at least ask them a few questions … like Had they seen a man with a rifle roaming around on an upper floor? And why were they were leaving the scene so soon?
3. There are three general descriptions of unknown men seen on the upper floors, in some cases with rifles, just before and at the time of the shooting:
First man: a younger white man who was slender.
Second man: another white man who may have been older, heavier, and wearing a tan jacket or coat and possibly glasses. 
Third man: a dark complected man who may have been Latin/Mexican/Negro.
4. Secret Service men were reported on the back entrance dock and at the front entrance within minutes of the shots, and well before Forrest Sorrels was the first actual SS agent to return to Dealey Plaza/ TSBD.
5. Unidentified men who were thought to be police officers:
A. "Some" plain clothes officers seen by Officer Mooney as he ascends the NW stairs from the 2nd floor
B. Weatherford searches the 1st floor with an unknown DPD detective
6. Unidentified Civilians:
A. Man seen in front elevator by Sawyer
B. Two men seen by rear elevator seen by Baker (may be Lovelady and Shelley)
7. Individuals seen leaving the scene:
A. Man seen by Worrel
B. Man seen by Carr
C. Man seen by Craig
D. Woman in car arrested by Craig.
(edited for spacing and syntax) 

Sunday, August 25, 2013

Geneva Hine and TSBD Book Publishers



Geneva L. Hine – TSBD secretary who having twice seen JFK before, stayed behind at her desk to answer the phone while other employees went outside to see the motorcade.

A few employees did not leave the depository, but viewed the motorcade from the upper floors south side windows.

Mrs. Hine said that because her desk is the first one by the door of the office, Oswald would often ask her for change (for either soda machine or telephone), but he never responded to her questions, a point that she raised with Oswald's boss Mr. Shelley. She described Oswald as being quiet, who kept to himself and was “an odd duck.” Shelley said that's just the way he was.

Mrs. Hine said that about ten minutes after all the other employees in her office went outside, the phones went quiet and the phone lights went dark – as the motorcade approached, giving her a chance to look out a north side window that allowed her to see the lead car in the motorcade come down Houston Street towards her and make the turn onto Elm. She also saw the President's car and others and heard the shots that she recognized as coming from inside the building.

According to her testimony she then, without returning to her desk, went down the hall and around the corner to the South Side to see if she could find a window to look out to see what happened, but – there were two large offices on that side of the building – offices of book publishers – Lyons and Carnahan and Southwestern Publishers. But both of them were – suspiciously locked, though she suspected people were in them. After finding the door to L&C locked and not answering her knock, she called out to a secretary she knew who worked there - “Lee” - Lee Watley, she then tried the other, but it too was locked, and no one responded to her knocks even though she could see through the door window, a secretary on the telephone.

Of course neither Mrs. Lee Watley nor the secretary on the telephone behind a locked door of an office that overlooked the murder scene were called to testify and there is no record of them being questioned, at least as far as I can find. But I do find the companies they worked for interesting. (See sidebar below)

After finding both of these offices locked, Mrs. Hine then testified that she returned to her desk, where the phone lights were now blinking and calls were coming in.

She did not see Lee Harvey Oswald walk past and did not notice Mrs. Reid at her desk at the other end of the office until after a number of people returned all at once.

Nor was she asked how long it took her to walk around the halls.

FBI Statement March 18, 1964 -
WC Deposition April 7, 1964
Http//www.history-matters.com/analysis/Witness/
jfkassassination.net/russ/testimony/hine.htm
WC 6H393
jfk.ci.dallas.tx.us/03/0369-001.gif

The TSBD Publishing Companies -

Lyons and Carnahan (L&C) was one of the companies that had an office on the second floor of the TSBD south side overlooking Dealey Plaza

It turns out that Frank Sinatra, before his singing career took off, actually worked for L & C in New York City, moving boxes of books around just like Lee Harvey Oswald. And when he left L & C Sinatra went to work for United Fruit.

Sinatra at L and C - http://sinatrafamily.com/forum/frank-sinatra-8/today-frank-sinatra-history-33848/index130.html

Southwest Publishing Company is even more interesting, as over the years it has employed Ken Starr, the federal judge, Whitewater investigator and current President of Baylor U., Hilary Clinton fundraiser David Rosen, Gov. of Texas Rick Perry, Mississippi Gov. Ronnie Musgrove and Charles Moose, the DC Sniper investigator.

Southwest employed Mr. Castor, who purchased two rifles - a 30-30 and a 22 for his son and brought them into the TSBD on Thursday, the day before the assassination, and Mr. Truly handled the 30-30 in front of Oswald.

Some Conspiracy Theorists have even said these publishers were controlled by the mob and the CIA and one of these second floor offices was a “command post” for the assassination, The 2nd Floor TSBD CIA/Mob Command Post - .alt.conspiracy.jfk
which would be an outrageous allegation if it wasn't for Bobbs-Merrell.

Besides Southwestern and L and C there were a number of other book publishers with offices in the TSBD, including McGraw Hill, Scott Foresman and Bobbs-Merrill.

Bobbs-Merrill is an Indiana based publisher that not only publishes school textbooks but also non-fictional biographies and history, including Bradley Ayers' “The War That Never Was,” which chronicles the US Army Ranger's training of anti-Castro Cubans at JMWAVE, the CIA's University of Miami base.

Unknown to Ayers at the time, his book was vetted by CIA officers connected to Bobbs-Merrill, who deleted a number of names from the manuscript including that of Ayers' JMWAVE boss Gordon Campbell, chief of JMWAVE maritime operations. When William Harvey, the CIA's former chief of Cuban operations retired from the CIA he got a job in Indiana with Bobbs-Merrill, and was officially listed as a legal advisor.

Bayard Stockton's book "Flawed Patriot" contains a photo of William Harvey's Bobbs-Merrell Employee ID.

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

TSBD First Floor














                               This is the TSBD front stairs from the first floor to the second floor.

View of the front door of TSBD from the inside 
"Prayer Man" was standing on the other side of the glass from the heater 



These arrows indicate one possible route Oswald could have taken from the First Floor Domino Lunchroom up the back stairs to the Second Floor Lunchroom.

If the man in the doorway "Prayer Man" is Oswald, then he must have gone up the front stairs to the Second Floor Lunchroom to get his coke, encounter Baker and Truly and then come back down the same way. 

James P. Sawa visits Air Force One



JFK Resources
JFK Resources – VC 137C, SAM 26000


Http://sam26000.webs.com


JFK's Air Force One (SAM 26000)
by James P. Sawa

Note: Since this article was first written, I have visited SAM 26000 two more times and have extensively photographed and filmed the aircraft, including both of the cargo holds underneath the plane. This is relevant because over the years there has been much discussion of whether the construction of Air Force One would have allowed for any body alteration to occur on the returnflight from Dallas, Texas to Washington, D.C. on November 22, 1963, following the assassination of President Kennedy.

In particular, there is no trap door leading from the rear passenger compartment into the rear baggage hold, and there never was, as one researcher has postulated. I have obtained and examined copies of the original floorplans and technical data of the aircraft from Boeing from 1962, which prove that the plane was never altered to hide the existence of a trap door leading to the rear baggage compartment--there never was a trap door to begin with. The rear baggage hold was inaccessible in flight from the time the plane was constructed in all Boeing 707-320B models, including Air Force One.

I have physically been in both baggage holds of SAM 26000 and have extensively photographed, filmed and measured them, proving that there is no trap door anywhere in the rear baggage hold. I have copywritten my photographs and plan to publish them at a future date.

A wide-angle viewing lens was built into the floor of the rear passenger compartment, looking into the rear cargo hold, through which any movement in the rear cargo hold would immediately be viewable from the rear passenger compartment. Also visible in the middle of the ceiling is an 18-inch square access panel (with approximately 48 screws--12 per side--securing it into the ceiling). My on-sight inspection revealed the presence of pipes behind the grill that is mounted in part of this 18-inch square panel. After conducting detailed measurements of the holds, in 1963, the location of this 18-inch square access panel would have been directly beneath the Presidential stateroom's bathroom, at least 8 to 10 feet forward of where a trap door was claimed to have been located by one researcher. Further, a study of Boeing's cutaway diagrams reveals the presence of pipes, wires and control cables running directly beneath the middle aisle of SAM 26000 from the front to the rear of the aircraft.

In addition, there is no access from the rear baggage hold to the forward baggage hold, as this area is filled with the aircraft's main fuel tanks and the main landing gear. Further, the Auxilliary Power Unit (APU) is located at the back of the forward baggage compartment and takes up the entire space in this area, touching up against the front of the main fuel tanks and the main landing gear at that point.

After conducting extensive interviews with a former flight engineer who flew on all of the Presidential 707s, I have determined that both cargo holds of Air Force One were so filled with luggage and provisions for the multiple-day Texas trip that there would have been no room for body alteration to have occurred in the baggage companrtments. In addition, anyone riding in either cargo hold would have needed to breathe using multiple oxygen tanks (for which there was no room), even though both holds were pressurized and lighted. An Air Force document describes that it would have taken approximately 20 "man hours" to prepare the rear cargo compartment for a coffin to be placed there, due to the necessity to remove some of the built-in storage racks there.

Finally, I have interviewed a witness who was at Love Field and said that, immediately after the coffin was loaded aboard the aircraft, the rear door was closed, the stairs were rolled away, and the rear door never re-opened. A short time later, people (including Judge Sarah Hughes, who had just sworn in LBJ as the next President), deplaned using the front steps, and Air Force One took off shortly thereafter. Were it even possible to sneak the body out of the coffin without getting blood all over the rear passenger compartment's carpet, past JFK's aides who were with the body the entire time, the body would have had to have gone through the swearing-in ceremony (without anyone noticing) and somehow gotten off of the aircraft through another method. My research proves none of this happened.

I presented my findings on Air Force One at the Wecht Conference in November, 2003 in Pittsburgh (the DVDs of the conference proceedings are due out sometime in early- to mid-2004), and I plan to write a more in-depth article on these findings, which will be included on this website at a future date.


A Visit to SAM 26000
By James P. Sawa

On Wednesday, October 20, 1999, I visited the U.S. Air Force Museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, outside of Dayton, Ohio. After entering the main museum, I learned that the presidential aircraft and experimental aircraft are housed in a separate hanger facility located on the old Wright Field flight line, about a mile away from the main museum. A special pass is required to gain access, but there is no charge to visit, and you are allowed to take as many pictures as you like and stay as long as you like. [NOTE: Since September 11, 2001 and increased security at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, it is no longer possible to drive your personal vehicle over to the Presidential Hanger. Instead, you are required to ride a special shuttle bus from the main museum over to the hanger and then return via the same method.]

The Boeing VC-137C, designated as SAM 26000, first used by President John F. Kennedy as Air Force One, sits housed in a very non-descript, ordinary-looking hanger. The Presidential Hanger is home to nine presidential aircraft, including the Douglas VC-118 Independence, used by Harry Truman and named for his home in Independence, Missouri. President Dwight Eisenhower’s plane, the Columbine III, also resides here. It was christened by Mrs. Eisenhower in November, 1954, and named after the flower of the State of Colorado. Also included in the presidential aircraft collection is Franklin D. Roosevelt’s C-54, the Sacred Cow, America’s first official presidential aircraft.

Currently, the Presidential seal is missing from both sides of the outside fuselage of SAM 26000, and the plane is painted somewhat differently from how it looked in 1963. In addition, the ventral fin–the rear stabilizer under the tail–is gone, having been removed in 1968 when the plane underwent an extensive refit, but the rivet hole marks are still visible in the airplane’s skin.

When SAM 26000 was first delivered to Wright Patterson Air Force Base on May 20, 1998, it was parked on the tarmac outside the hanger, where several thousand people flocked to tour the plane. The Air Force Museum had to secure special permission from Wright Patterson Air Force Base to allow the plane to land on the old Wright Patterson flight line, because this special runway was needed to get the plane down safely.

According to information personnel stationed in the hanger, in June, 1998, SAM 26000 was closed to the public. Air Force workers spent 16-hour days for approximately a month draining the oil from the engines, fuel from the tanks, and generally cleaning the plane. In addition, they installed heavy clear plastic “walls” on each side of the aisle inside the plane, to preserve the interior, thus making the walkway through the airplane only 17” wide.

Over time and different Presidential administrations, the interior configuration of the compartment walls and seating changed from JFK’s time. Originally, the restoration department at Wright Patterson was debating restoring the plane to how it looked when JFK used the plane. However, according to Dr. Jeffrey Underwood, Presidential Aircraft Historian at the Air Force Museum, they have decided to leave the plane in its current condition, as it is historically accurate as to how it was received at the U.S. Air Force Museum in 1998.

At the bottom of the front of the plane is a large placard-type board, describing the particulars of SAM 26000, including detailing some of the famous passengers who have flown aboard her during her service. In addition, there is a 17” wide template at the bottom of the steps leading to the front door of the aircraft that people must be able to pass through in order to tour the plane.

The self-guided tour of the plane starts at the front cabin door, where people board airplanes today. The cockpit doorway is sealed shut with a clear plastic wall, but you can easily see all of the controls, including both the Flight Engineer’s and Navigators stations, plus the Observer’s Seat behind the pilot’s seat. Immediately behind the forward door on the port side is a highly-complex 2-person communications console which kept the airplane in constant contact with the rest of the world. Next come several rows of seats, then the aisle diverts along the port-side wall of the plane because the presidential cabins run alongside the starboard wall, over the wings.

The first presidential cabin served as the President’s office and conference room. There is a table with a chair on either side of it, plus a fold-out couch along the interior cabin wall. A small bathroom is attached to this room as well. A door at the rear of this compartment passes into the presidential lounge, where there are a series of seats ringing the walls. Over the doorway is one of the digital clocks originally installed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was fascinated by the different stages of daily activity at any given moment in the various time zones around the world. He always wanted to know the time of day at his eventual destination, in Washington, DC, and in the time zone he was then flying through. The Bulova Watch Company donated their services and crafted the special clocks which were installed throughout the plane.

Further back along the aisle, immediately behind the presidential lounge, there is a placard attached to one of the walls depicting LBJ being sworn in on November 22, 1963, and explaining that you are now standing in the area where that event took place. This area is currently set up with rows of seats on both sides of the aisle; this was where the staff sat in flight, and there is a copier machine, two desks and a typewriter in this area.

Continuing backward, more seats are on both sides of the aisle, and a large galley is on the starboard side of the plane. When JFK was president, this galley was farther back along the starboard cabin wall, and in fact, the area where Jackie Kennedy and JFK’s aides sat on the return trip is now partly occupied by this walk-in galley.

Another placard near the rear door explains how the last 2 rows of seats were removed to make room for JFK’s coffin on the return trip from Dallas, and there are still saw marks in one of the bulkheads that was cut to allow the coffin to be maneuvered into place. To exit the plane, you walk down a set of steps outside the rear door, where JFK’s coffin was off-loaded. It is most impressive to stand in that rear doorway and look over your left shoulder at the large tail soaring over your head and to see the large "26000" number and the U.S. Flag painted there.

Still visible also are the engraved plaques over the airphones hanging on the walls throughout the plane, which warned users that the phones were not secure communication devices.

Unfortunately, because of the number of other aircraft also parked in the hanger, and also because of SAM 26000’s size, it is impossible to get pictures of the plane without any other aircraft being in the picture as well. The information personnel said that a new, larger hanger is being built and will be open after 2002. When that is completed, SAM 26000 will be displayed without so many aircraft surrounding it.

The Presidential Aircraft and Experimental Aircraft hangers are open from 9:30 a.m. until 5:00 p.m., seven days a week; there is no charge for admission. For anyone who finds themselves in the Dayton, Ohio area, it is definitely worth the time to stop and tour SAM 26000, as well as the rest of the Air Force Museum.


Air Force VC-137C (Boeing 707), SAM 26000
Air Force One

The VC-137C was basically the Boeing 707-320B commercial intercontinental airliner. Beginning in 1962, SAM 26000’s primary Air Force mission was to furnish transportation for the President of the United States. In addition, U.S. cabinet members, heads of foreign governments and other executive and military leaders were afforded transportation. Principal differences between the Boeing 707-320B and the VC-137 were in electronic and communications equipment, berths, conference facilities, and other interior furnishings. The passenger cabin of the VC-137 was partitioned into three sections: a communications center, an airborne headquarters and a passenger compartment. Increased seating or cargo space could be made through simplified conversion. The last VC-137 (SAM 27000) was retired in 2001 and is scheduled to be on display at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California in the near future.
Currently, 2 VC-25A’s (the current Air Force One, specially-modified Boeing 747-200B's) and 4 C-32A's (the current Air Force Two, specially-modified Boeing 757's) are based at Andrews AFB, MD, and are used by MAC as carriers for top Government officials, along with several C-20's and C-37's, which are Gulfstream jets modified for the Air Force (President Bush uses these smaller jets when flying to his ranch in Texas). In addition, C40B and C40C models of the Boeing Business Jet (based on the Boeing 737 platform) have been added to the fleet to transport Cabinet officials and other high-ranking VIPs.

Specifications

Primary Function: High priority personnel and cargo transport
Prime Contractor: The Boeing Company
Engine: Four Pratt & Whitney TF33 (JT3D-3) Turbofans
Thrust: 18,000 lbs. each
Top Speed: 530 mph
Range: 6,000+ miles
Ceiling: Above 43,000 feet
Crew: 7 or 8
Passengers: Maximum of 50
Wingspan: 145 feet 9 inches
Length: 152 feet 11 inches
Height: 42 feet 5 inches
Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight: 322,000 lbs, VC-137C

Note: On November 10, 1962, President and Mrs. Kennedy first used SAM 26000 for the 48-minute flight from Washington National Airport, Washington DC, to Stewart Air Force Base, New York, to attend the funeral of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, a former First Lady of the United States of America.
JFK's Air Force One (SAM 26000)
by James P. Sawa

Note: Since this article was first written, I have visited SAM 26000 two more times and have extensively photographed and filmed the aircraft, including both of the cargo holds underneath the plane. This is relevant because over the years there has been much discussion of whether the construction of Air Force One would have allowed for any body alteration to occur on the return flight from Dallas, Texas to Washington, D.C. on November 22, 1963, following the assassination of President Kennedy.

In particular, there is no trap door leading from the rear passenger compartment into the rear baggage hold, and there never was, as one researcher has postulated. I have obtained and examined copies of the original floor plans and technical data of the aircraft from Boeing from 1962, which prove that the plane was never altered to hide the existence of a trap door leading to the rear baggage compartment--there never was a trap door to begin with. The rear baggage hold was inaccessible in flight from the time the plane was constructed in all Boeing 707-320B models, including Air Force One.

I have physically been in both baggage holds of SAM 26000 and have extensively photographed, filmed and measured them, proving that there is no trap door anywhere in the rear baggage hold. I have copywritten my photographs and plan to publish them at a future date.

A wide-angle viewing lens was built into the floor of the rear passenger compartment, looking into the rear cargo hold, through which any movement in the rear cargo hold would immediately be viewable from the rear passenger compartment. Also visible in the middle of the ceiling is an 18-inch square access panel (with approximately 48 screws--12 per side--securing it into the ceiling). My on-sight inspection revealed the presence of pipes behind the grill that is mounted in part of this 18-inch square panel. After conducting detailed measurements of the holds, in 1963, the location of this 18-inch square access panel would have been directly beneath the Presidential stateroom's bathroom, at least 8 to 10 feet forward of where a trap door was claimed to have been located by one researcher. Further, a study of Boeing's cutaway diagrams reveals the presence of pipes, wires and control cables running directly beneath the middle aisle of SAM 26000 from the front to the rear of the aircraft.

In addition, there is no access from the rear baggage hold to the forward baggage hold, as this area is filled with the aircraft's main fuel tanks and the main landing gear. Further, the Auxilliary Power Unit (APU) is located at the back of the forward baggage compartment and takes up the entire space in this area, touching up against the front of the main fuel tanks and the main landing gear at that point.

After conducting extensive interviews with a former flight engineer who flew on all of the Presidential 707s, I have determined that both cargo holds of Air Force One were so filled with luggage and provisions for the multiple-day Texas trip that there would have been no room for body alteration to have occurred in the baggage companrtments. In addition, anyone riding in either cargo hold would have needed to breathe using multiple oxygen tanks (for which there was no room), even though both holds were pressurized and lighted. An Air Force document describes that it would have taken approximately 20 "man hours" to prepare the rear cargo compartment for a coffin to be placed there, due to the necessity to remove some of the built-in storage racks there.

Finally, I have interviewed a witness who was at Love Field and said that, immediately after the coffin was loaded aboard the aircraft, the rear door was closed, the stairs were rolled away, and the rear door never re-opened. A short time later, people (including Judge Sarah Hughes, who had just sworn in LBJ as the next President), deplaned using the front steps, and Air Force One took off shortly thereafter. Were it even possible to sneak the body out of the coffin without getting blood all over the rear passenger compartment's carpet, past JFK's aides who were with the body the entire time, the body would have had to have gone through the swearing-in ceremony (without anyone noticing) and somehow gotten off of the aircraft through another method. My research proves none of this happened.

I presented my findings on Air Force One at the Wecht Conference in November, 2003 in Pittsburgh (the DVDs of the conference proceedings are due out sometime in early- to mid-2004), and I plan to write a more in-depth article on these findings, which will be included on this website at a future date.


A Visit to SAM 26000
By James P. Sawa

On Wednesday, October 20, 1999, I visited the U.S. Air Force Museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, outside of Dayton, Ohio. After entering the main museum, I learned that the presidential aircraft and experimental aircraft are housed in a separate hanger facility located on the old Wright Field flight line, about a mile away from the main museum. A special pass is required to gain access, but there is no charge to visit, and you are allowed to take as many pictures as you like and stay as long as you like. [NOTE: Since September 11, 2001 and increased security at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, it is no longer possible to drive your personal vehicle over to the Presidential Hanger. Instead, you are required to ride a special shuttle bus from the main museum over to the hanger and then return via the same method.]

The Boeing VC-137C, designated as SAM 26000, first used by President John F. Kennedy as Air Force One, sits housed in a very non-descript, ordinary-looking hanger. The Presidential Hanger is home to nine presidential aircraft, including the Douglas VC-118 Independence, used by Harry Truman and named for his home in Independence, Missouri. President Dwight Eisenhower’s plane, the Columbine III, also resides here. It was christened by Mrs. Eisenhower in November, 1954, and named after the flower of the State of Colorado. Also included in the presidential aircraft collection is Franklin D. Roosevelt’s C-54, the Sacred Cow, America’s first official presidential aircraft.

Currently, the Presidential seal is missing from both sides of the outside fuselage of SAM 26000, and the plane is painted somewhat differently from how it looked in 1963. In addition, the ventral fin–the rear stabilizer under the tail–is gone, having been removed in 1968 when the plane underwent an extensive refit, but the rivet hole marks are still visible in the airplane’s skin.

When SAM 26000 was first delivered to Wright Patterson Air Force Base on May 20, 1998, it was parked on the tarmac outside the hanger, where several thousand people flocked to tour the plane. The Air Force Museum had to secure special permission from Wright Patterson Air Force Base to allow the plane to land on the old Wright Patterson flight line, because this special runway was needed to get the plane down safely.

According to information personnel stationed in the hanger, in June, 1998, SAM 26000 was closed to the public. Air Force workers spent 16-hour days for approximately a month draining the oil from the engines, fuel from the tanks, and generally cleaning the plane. In addition, they installed heavy clear plastic “walls” on each side of the aisle inside the plane, to preserve the interior, thus making the walkway through the airplane only 17” wide.

Over time and different Presidential administrations, the interior configuration of the compartment walls and seating changed from JFK’s time. Originally, the restoration department at Wright Patterson was debating restoring the plane to how it looked when JFK used the plane. However, according to Dr. Jeffrey Underwood, Presidential Aircraft Historian at the Air Force Museum, they have decided to leave the plane in its current condition, as it is historically accurate as to how it was received at the U.S. Air Force Museum in 1998.

At the bottom of the front of the plane is a large placard-type board, describing the particulars of SAM 26000, including detailing some of the famous passengers who have flown aboard her during her service. In addition, there is a 17” wide template at the bottom of the steps leading to the front door of the aircraft that people must be able to pass through in order to tour the plane.

The self-guided tour of the plane starts at the front cabin door, where people board airplanes today. The cockpit doorway is sealed shut with a clear plastic wall, but you can easily see all of the controls, including both the Flight Engineer’s and Navigators stations, plus the Observer’s Seat behind the pilot’s seat. Immediately behind the forward door on the port side is a highly-complex 2-person communications console which kept the airplane in constant contact with the rest of the world. Next come several rows of seats, then the aisle diverts along the port-side wall of the plane because the presidential cabins run alongside the starboard wall, over the wings.

The first presidential cabin served as the President’s office and conference room. There is a table with a chair on either side of it, plus a fold-out couch along the interior cabin wall. A small bathroom is attached to this room as well. A door at the rear of this compartment passes into the presidential lounge, where there are a series of seats ringing the walls. Over the doorway is one of the digital clocks originally installed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was fascinated by the different stages of daily activity at any given moment in the various time zones around the world. He always wanted to know the time of day at his eventual destination, in Washington, DC, and in the time zone he was then flying through. The Bulova Watch Company donated their services and crafted the special clocks which were installed throughout the plane.

Further back along the aisle, immediately behind the presidential lounge, there is a placard attached to one of the walls depicting LBJ being sworn in on November 22, 1963, and explaining that you are now standing in the area where that event took place. This area is currently set up with rows of seats on both sides of the aisle; this was where the staff sat in flight, and there is a copier machine, two desks and a typewriter in this area.

Continuing backward, more seats are on both sides of the aisle, and a large galley is on the starboard side of the plane. When JFK was president, this galley was farther back along the starboard cabin wall, and in fact, the area where Jackie Kennedy and JFK’s aides sat on the return trip is now partly occupied by this walk-in galley.

Another placard near the rear door explains how the last 2 rows of seats were removed to make room for JFK’s coffin on the return trip from Dallas, and there are still saw marks in one of the bulkheads that was cut to allow the coffin to be maneuvered into place. To exit the plane, you walk down a set of steps outside the rear door, where JFK’s coffin was off-loaded. It is most impressive to stand in that rear doorway and look over your left shoulder at the large tail soaring over your head and to see the large "26000" number and the U.S. Flag painted there.

Still visible also are the engraved plaques over the airphones hanging on the walls throughout the plane, which warned users that the phones were not secure communication devices.

Unfortunately, because of the number of other aircraft also parked in the hanger, and also because of SAM 26000’s size, it is impossible to get pictures of the plane without any other aircraft being in the picture as well. The information personnel said that a new, larger hanger is being built and will be open after 2002. When that is completed, SAM 26000 will be displayed without so many aircraft surrounding it.

The Presidential Aircraft and Experimental Aircraft hangers are open from 9:30 a.m. until 5:00 p.m., seven days a week; there is no charge for admission. For anyone who finds themselves in the Dayton, Ohio area, it is definitely worth the time to stop and tour SAM 26000, as well as the rest of the Air Force Museum.


Air Force VC-137C (Boeing 707), SAM 26000
Air Force One

The VC-137C was basically the Boeing 707-320B commercial intercontinental airliner. Beginning in 1962, SAM 26000’s primary Air Force mission was to furnish transportation for the President of the United States. In addition, U.S. cabinet members, heads of foreign governments and other executive and military leaders were afforded transportation. Principal differences between the Boeing 707-320B and the VC-137 were in electronic and communications equipment, berths, conference facilities, and other interior furnishings. The passenger cabin of the VC-137 was partitioned into three sections: a communications center, an airborne headquarters and a passenger compartment. Increased seating or cargo space could be made through simplified conversion. The last VC-137 (SAM 27000) was retired in 2001 and is scheduled to be on display at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California in the near future.
Currently, 2 VC-25A’s (the current Air Force One, specially-modified Boeing 747-200B's) and 4 C-32A's (the current Air Force Two, specially-modified Boeing 757's) are based at Andrews AFB, MD, and are used by MAC as carriers for top Government officials, along with several C-20's and C-37's, which are Gulfstream jets modified for the Air Force (President Bush uses these smaller jets when flying to his ranch in Texas). In addition, C40B and C40C models of the Boeing Business Jet (based on the Boeing 737 platform) have been added to the fleet to transport Cabinet officials and other high-ranking VIPs.

Specifications

Primary Function: High priority personnel and cargo transport
Prime Contractor: The Boeing Company
Engine: Four Pratt & Whitney TF33 (JT3D-3) Turbofans
Thrust: 18,000 lbs. each
Top Speed: 530 mph
Range: 6,000+ miles
Ceiling: Above 43,000 feet
Crew: 7 or 8
Passengers: Maximum of 50
Wingspan: 145 feet 9 inches
Length: 152 feet 11 inches
Height: 42 feet 5 inches
Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight: 322,000 lbs, VC-137C

Note: On November 10, 1962, President and Mrs. Kennedy first used SAM 26000 for the 48-minute flight from Washington National Airport, Washington DC, to Stewart Air Force Base, New York, to attend the funeral of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, a former First Lady of the United States of America.